Rampant discrimination and violence harm many LGBTI people. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people are at heightened risk of physical and sexual violence, which is sometimes fatal. Perpetrators of this violence include both agents of the state enforcing laws or regulations that criminalize same-sex relations (or are meant to maintain “public order”), and non-state actors such as local militias, religious extremists, criminal gangs, and otherwise ordinary members of the public. Perpetrators also include partners and family members. A report published by the non-profit organization OutRight Action International examining situations in five Asian countries found that the primary perpetrators of violence against lesbian and bisexual women and trans people there were family members. In all parts of the world, people who challenge sexual and gender norms regularly experience discrimination when it comes to obtaining housing, social security benefits, and education. The bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students has been well documented. And while less has been documented about the situation for intersex students, it is likely that they are also at risk if their status becomes known - or if they are simply perceived as breaking gender norms. These higher rates of bullying at all levels of education that are experienced by LGBT people compared with other students can directly result in relatively lower levels of class attendance and participation. That in turn can translate into a risk of lower educational outcomes compared with their non-LGBT peers. In some countries, students are liable to be suspended, expelled, or otherwise disciplined simply because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. In the US, high rates of homelessness among LGBT youth have been well documented. A 2012 study published by the Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law suggested that as many as 40% of all homeless young people in the US were LGBT. The report also found that family rejection was the main contributing factor. While a relatively high incidence of homelessness among LGBT young people has not been as well documented outside of the US, there are several reports suggesting that it is not a problem that is isolated to a single country - and is in fact something that is all too prevalent in many societies.
Anti-LGBTI Discrimination and Violence