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Several companies are developing bio-based, ultra-durable biofilms and coatings so that chipped nails, scratched paint, and cracked screens become yesterday’s problem. In 2022, Ginkgo Bioworks acquired the biotech company Zymergen, which develops and produces molecules, microbes, and materials for diverse end markets, for $300 million. Zymergen developed a transparent biofilm that is thin, flexible, and durable enough to be used to transmit touch on a variety of surfaces, including smartphones, TV screens, and skin. Other possible applications include nearly invisible printed electronics that flex and move as needed. Imagine a football covered in a biofilm that could reveal, in real time, the ball’s spin rate and velocity, along with the quarterback’s precise hand placement.

Durable biofilms


Biological Process Identification and Modelling