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Artificially or synthetically created substances with the ability to automatically repair damage without an external diagnosis or any human intervention. Self-healing materials refer to synthetic or artificial substances that repair themselves without direct intervention from humans. They function almost like the human body, by automatically sensing failure or breakdown, halt the process or stop it from worsening, then repair the damage as soon as possible. These materials will support environmental causes by prolonging the life of products, reducing the need for replacement and thereby work as a counteraction to waste. Experts believe that industries such as aerospace, oil, gas, automotive, shipping, and construction will first see strong growth of self-healing products for surfaces and buildings that are exposed to heavy weathering. Microcracking and hidden damage are the causes of structural failures. With the ability to repair themselves automatically without an external diagnosis or any human intervention, these artificially and synthetically created materials uses a variety of self-repair techniques such as forming hydrogen bonds, metal-ligand coordination, or even ion-dipole interactions. The healing process takes place with the help of several different methods, mainly by bonding together two existing parts of one material. The bonding procedure is primarily chemical and combines covalent bonds and non-covalent bonds. Both mix features like strong and static forms with weaker and dynamic structures, resulting in a durable material able to stretch and recover by itself when damaged. A variety of classes of materials, including metals, glass, rubber, silicon, cotton, leather, ceramics, concrete, and polymers, are a few examples of tested self-healing components. However, a polar, stretchable polymer, poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene), and a mobile ionic salt is the most popular combination among scientists to produce a self-healing material. It works through a chain linked to an ion-dipole interaction between the polar groups in the polymer and ionic salt. The result is a technology based on the polymeric material, useful for self-repairing electronics, soft robotics, or even liquid coatings that could make for cleaner and less sticky furniture, automotive interiors, clothing, shoes, handbags, etc. This technology could create water-resistant and super-liquiphobic products, repelling both water and oil-based liquids. Self-healing materials/composites will soon have a significant impact, especially for materials such as underwater piping or even aerospace structures, where maintenance and inspection are nearly impossible due to inaccessibility. With self-healing capabilities, there would be no concerns over issues such as erosion or microcracking. It could be possible for these principles to be applied to the development of lithium batteries, artificial muscles, fixing broken smartphones, or even avoiding oil spillage and loss of water due to faulty pipes.

Self-Healing Material

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Advanced Materials